The worldwide trend toward lead-free components and soldering is especially urgent in the European Union with the implementation strict new standards in July 2006, and with pending implementation of laws in China and California. This book provides a standard reference guide for engineers who must meet the new regulations, including a broad collection of techniques for lead-free soldering design and manufacture, which up to now have been scattered in difficult-to-find scholarly sources.
Based on the results of a more than two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing is the first practical, primary reference to cover Pb-free solder assembly as well as the analysis and reasoning behind the selection of Sn-Ag-Cu as the recommended Pb-free replacement for Sn-Pb. Reflecting the results of a two-year study, Lead-Free Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing provides full coverage of the issues surrounding the implementation of Pb-free solder into electronic board assembly. This book is extremely timelyâ??most electronic manufacturers are going to change over to Pb free soldering by 2006 to meet new European laws. All manufacturers around the globe are going to be affected by this change. The text provides specific results from the thirty company NEMI project activities. It contains integrated and fully documented book chapters with references to existing published work in the area. These serve as tremendous resources for engineers and companies faced with making the switch to Pb-free solder assembly.
With the proliferation of packaging technology, failure and reliability have become serious concerns. This invaluable reference details processes that enable detection, analysis and prevention of failures. It provides a comprehensive account of the failures of device packages, discrete component connectors, PCB carriers and PCB assemblies.
Covers various soldering methods and techniques as well as the latest on solder alloys, solder films, surface preparation, fluxes and cleaning methods, heating methods, inspection techniques, and quality control and reliability. Geared to scientists, material engineers, designers, manufacturing engineers, and technologists who need immediate practical guidance rather than theoretical instruction.
Contamination problems have become a major factor in determining the manufacturability, quality, and reliability of electronic assemblies. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of contamination has become necessary for improving quality and reliability and reducing costs of electronic assemblies. Designed as a practical guide, Contamination of Electronic Assemblies presents a generalized overview of contamination problems and serves as a problem-solving reference point. It takes a step-by-step approach to identifying contaminants and their effects on electronic products at each level of manufacture. The text is divided into four sections: Laminate Manufacturing, Substrate Fabrication, Pr...
* The "bible" of printed circuit board (PCB) technology, revised by Clyde F. Coombs, Jr., the author of the original edition * Describes the processes used to make today's micro-PCBs and shows how they differ from past techniques A definitive reference source on the design, selection and operation of A/C and refrigeration systems
A foreword is usually prepared by someone who knows the author or who knows enough to provide additional insight on the purpose of the work. When asked to write this foreword, I had no problem with what I wanted to say about the work or the author. I did, however, wonder why people read a foreword. It is probably of value to know the background of the writer of a book; it is probably also of value to know the background of the individual who is commenting on the work. I consider myself a good friend of the author, and when I was asked to write a few words I felt honored to provide my view of Ray Prasad, his expertise, and the contribution that he has made to our industry. This book is about the industry, its technology, and its struggle to learn and compete in a global market bursting with new ideas to satisfy a voracious appetite for new and innovative electronic products. I had the good fortune to be there at the beginning (or almost) and have witnessed the growth and excitement in the opportunities and challenges afforded the electronic industries' engineering and manufacturing talents. In a few years my involve ment will span half a century.
Lead-free Electronics provides guidance on the design and use of lead-free electronics as well as technical and legislative perspectives. All the complex challenges confronting the elec-tronics industry are skillfully addressed: * Complying with state legislation * Implementing the transition to lead-free electronics, including anticipating associated costs and potential supply chain issues * Understanding intellectual property issues in lead-free alloys and their applications, including licensing and infringement * Implementing cost effective manufacturing and testing * Reducing risks due to tin whiskers * Finding lead-free solutions in harsh environments such as in the automotive and telec...