The COVID-19 pandemic has plunged Finland into a deep recession, albeit less severe than in most other OECD countries. Finland managed to bring the first wave of the coronavirus under control quickly through a combination of voluntary mobility reductions and timely containment measures and is on track to do the same for the second wave. Nevertheless, many people have been laid off and the budgetary costs of supporting household- and business incomes have been considerable.
Volume IIIb of National Accounts of OECD Countries covers financial balance sheets of OECD countries and includes financial stocks (both financial assets and liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial instrument. Data are shown for 29 OECD countries for the period from 1996 to 2007 when available. Data are provided in national currency values.
This book seeks to increase understanding of the links between skills and innovation. It explores the wide range of skills required, and it presents data and evidence on countries' stocks and flows of skills and the links between skill inputs and innovation outputs.
If well managed, migration generates benefits for migrants, their countries of origin, and the countries they settle in. For migrants, it can help them expand their skill sets and improve their standard of living. For destination countries, it can alleviate demographic pressures and foster cultural diversity. For origin countries, it can bring benefits associated with remittances and knowledge transfers. However, in reality, these benefits are rarely achieved, because migration policy failures frequently lead to suboptimal or even negative outcomes. Realizing the full potential of migration therefore demands a paradigm shift toward the fair management of migration. Fair migration is driven by the desire to achieve a triple-win for migrants, destination countries, and origin countries. In addition to outlining the key challenges and opportunities associated with fair migration, this volume examines the good practices of a variety of countries and institutions that highlight aspects of fair migration. This volume aims to enrich discussions among policymakers, business leaders, civil society actors, and scholars alike.
This sourcebook captures innovative strategies in 28 countries in order to provide ideas and inspiration to revenue authorities in developing countries with regards to taxpayer education, literacy and outreach to strengthen the tax morale and tax compliance of their citizens.
One of the most effective ways to realise the potential of trade as a tool for development and poverty reduction is through meaningful market access. That being said, increasing the trade capacity of less advanced developing countries so that they become more dynamic players in the global economy requires a wide range of support. At the 2005 Hong Kong WTO Ministerial Conference, ministers called for the expansion of Aid for Trade to help developing countries benefit from WTO agreements and expand their trade, while recognising that such aid should not substitute for successful market access outcomes in the core areas of the Doha Development Agenda. In effect, the current suspension of talks ...
Countries exiting conflict and fragility face many urgent priorities and almost invariably suffer from substantial infrastructure deficits. There is typically very little infrastructure investment during periods of fragility and conflict, and existing installations are often damaged or destroyed. The purpose of this manual is to contribute to improvements in the quality of infrastructure regulation. It does so by identifying key principles for the governance of infrastructure regulators and by suggesting how these principles can be introduced successfully and maintained over time. The introduction of cross-cutting governance principles for regulators is based on the assumption that a uniform...
Trapped in the Middle? investigates whether middle-income traps really exist and, in case they do, how these pitfalls are manifested, their causes, what economic policy measures are required to escape from them, and what international cooperation can do to support this process.