For the first year students of B.E./B.Tech/B.Arch. and also useful for competitive Examinations. A number of problems are solved. New problems are included in order to expedite the learning process of students of all hues and to improve their academic performance. Each chapter divided into smaller parts and subheading are provided to make the reading a pleasant journey
Radiation Dosimetry Phosphors provides an overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of materials used for radiation dosimetry and reviews the most appropriate phosphor materials for each radiation dosimetry technique. The book describes the available phosphors used commercially for their applications in the medical field for dose measurements. Although radiation dosimetry phosphors are commercially available, continuous efforts have been made by the worldwide research community to develop new materials or improve already existing materials used in different areas with low or high levels of radiation. Moreover, researchers are still working on developing dosimetric phosphors for ...
The three neutrinos are ghostly elementary particles that exist all across the Universe. Though every second billions of them fly through us, they are extremely hard to detect. We used to think they had no mass, but recently discovered that in fact they have a tiny mass. The quest for the neutrino mass scale and mass ordering (specifying how the three masses are distributed) is an extremely exciting one, and will open the door towards new physics operating at energy scales we can only ever dream of reaching on Earth. This thesis explores the use of measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (the oldest light reaching us, a snapshot of the infant Universe) and maps of millions of galaxies to go after the neutrino mass scale and mass ordering. Neutrinos might teach us something about the mysterious dark energy powering the accelerated expansion of the Universe, or about cosmic inflation, which seeded the initial conditions for the Universe. Though extremely baffling, neutrinos are also an exceptionally exciting area of research, and cosmological observations promise to reveal a great deal about these elusive particles in the coming years.
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors: CANDU, the seventh volume in the JSME Series on Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation series, provides a comprehensive and complete review of a single type of reactor in a very accessible and practical way. The book presents the full lifecycle, from design and manufacturing to operation and maintenance, also covering fitness-for-service and long-term operation. It does not relate to any specific vendor-based technology, but rather provides a broad overview of the latest technologies from a variety of active locations which will be of great value to countries invested in developing their own nuclear programs. Including contemporary capabilities and challenges ...
Rare earth–doped luminescent materials play an integral role in modern life because of their tremendous applications ranging from scintillators, color displays, fluorescent lamps, and intensifying screens to dosimetry of ionizing radiations. Written and edited by prominent luminescence researchers, this book details cutting-edge research on luminescence materials and is illustrated throughout with excellent figures and references. It will appeal to anyone involved in luminescence research and its applications, especially advanced undergraduate-, graduate-, and postgraduate-level students of spectroscopy, solid state physics, luminescence, material synthesis, and optical properties and researchers working on the synthesis of optical materials, the characterization of luminescence materials, solid state lighting, radiation dosimetry luminescence, and phosphor applications.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are chronic diseases that include most ageing-related diseases, representing the main cause of death and disability in the general population. Inflammation and oxidative stress are common features in NCDs, responsible for the cell, tissue, and organ damage that contributes to the progression of these diseases. They may be also key targets for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. This Special Issue includes 14 peer-reviewed papers, including 12 original research papers and 2 reviews. Together, they represent the most recent progress in the field of several degenerative disorders, aiming to establish specific biomarkers, detailing the pathogenesis and the evolution of these diseases, making a correct diagnosis, and opening up new therapeutic strategies. Of relevance, many studies report the beneficial effects of natural compounds, derived from several plants, leaves, and fruits; their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties suggest their use as a dietary supplement for prevention and/or complement to standard therapies.
Vols. 1- include Report of the Geological Survey, 1867- ; v. 32- include Review of the mineral production of India, 1898/1903- ; v. 75 consists of Professional papers, no. 1-16; v. 76 consists of Bulletins of economic minerals.
The innate immune response serves as the first line of defense against microbial infections by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Proteins of the PYHIN family have gained substantial research focus in recent years as central mediators of innate immune responses induced by cytosolic microbial DNA. Sensing of DNA by PYHINs typically leads to activation of inflammasomes and/or type I interferon responses that are crucial for host defense against invading pathogens. Certain members of the family are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases as well as transcriptional regulation. Although the generation of knockout mice strains has unraveled the essential role of PYHIN proteins such as AIM2 in the development of antimicrobial innate immune responses, the exact biological role of several other PYHIN family members remains to be understood. This chapter reviews the important discoveries on PYHIN proteins and their role in microbial defense, autoimmunity and transcriptional regulation.