The innate immune response serves as the first line of defense against microbial infections by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Proteins of the PYHIN family have gained substantial research focus in recent years as central mediators of innate immune responses induced by cytosolic microbial DNA. Sensing of DNA by PYHINs typically leads to activation of inflammasomes and/or type I interferon responses that are crucial for host defense against invading pathogens. Certain members of the family are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases as well as transcriptional regulation. Although the generation of knockout mice strains has unraveled the essential role of PYHIN proteins such as AIM2 in the development of antimicrobial innate immune responses, the exact biological role of several other PYHIN family members remains to be understood. This chapter reviews the important discoveries on PYHIN proteins and their role in microbial defense, autoimmunity and transcriptional regulation.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) can cause food-borne disease outbreaks associated with contaminated beef or fresh produce, resulting in diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and/or hemolytic uremic syndrome: the triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. Intestinally colonized cattle are a major source of human infection. Upon colonic infection, EHEC utilizes a type III secretion system to translocate into mammalian cells bacterial effector proteins that target cellular functions such as epithelial barrier integrity, vesicular transport, and cytoskeletal structure. Translocated effectors induce ‘attaching and effacing’ lesions, characterized by microvillar effacement, intimate attachment, and actin ‘pedestal’ formation beneath bound bacteria. Systemic disease relies on the production of Shiga toxin, a potent inhibitor of ribosome function that triggers cell death, inflammation, and vascular damage. Most current therapies are only supportive in nature because antibiotic treatment may increase Shiga toxin production. Therefore, outbreak prevention, early diagnosis, and the development of new therapeutic strategies are critical.
The 2e of Escherichia coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive. Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular pathogenesis of each and the causes of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans. This work concludes with a presentation of virulence factors common to two or more pathotypes. The book is a great resource for references and up-to-date knowledge for anyone who studies E. coli pathogenesis, either as established investigators or investigators new to the field. It is also an excellent text for those who teach mechanisms of pathogenesis to graduate students and medical students and wish to have a source of knowledge from which to develop lectures. Offers a single source of information of E. coli pathogenesis written by expert authors Presents comprehensive coverage on molecular mechanisms, biology, evolution and genomics and recent advances
Revisit the work of a pioneering innovator… • Explores the field of bacterial population genetics by highlighting the work of Thomas S. Whittam, best known for his work with enterohemorrhagic E. coli. • Features a compilation of research projects and ideas stemming from Dr. Whittam’s work that presents a broad perspective on the historical development of bacterial population genetics.
Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them